Getting Started | 3 min read

Discover how EV batteries work

Discover how EV batteries work

Lately, a term has been ringing in our ears as it is in the spotlight.

It's nothing but EV.

The Government of India is sowing good seeds and encouraging citizens of India to switch to Electric Vehicles.

But do you know why?

Mother Earth:

Having noticed the rising environmental pollution, it's evident that we are least bothered about our Mother Earth.

The carbon emissions produced by gasoline vehicles are turning our nature prematurely grey.

So, this is where EV comes to the rescue.

Electric Vehicles Vs Fuel Vehicles

Unlike other fuel vehicles, battery electric vehicles are powered by an electric motor instead of a gas-powered engine.

They move along our roadways without burning up fuel or producing any harmful exhausting emissions and in turn, generate less environmental pollution.


EVs utilize the energy stored in the rechargeable battery. These batteries are recharged by the common house of electricity. The driving range of an electric vehicle is directly proportional to the kW of the battery.

Lithium-ion batteries:

In terms of choosing the right types of battery cells, lithium-ion battery types make the best choices due to their features as follows:

  • High energy density
  • Low self-discharge
  • Low Maintenance

Unlike a dry cell battery, a lithium-ion battery lasts longer because of its high charge density and endurance in terms of power consumption.

Charging infrastructure of EV:

The charging process of an electric vehicle entails a converter that supplies direct current to the battery followed by the conversion of alternate current from the electricity distribution system.

Modes of charging:

In accordance with international standards, the four modes of charging electric vehicles are listed below:

Mode 1:

This mode of charging incorporates plugging an electric vehicle into a standard household AC socket.


Utilization of this charging technology is restricted due to the lack of safety electric measures.

Mode 2:

Similar to mode 1, this most common mode of charging involves plugging into a standard household AC socket along with the inclusion of safety measures in its cable control box (ICCB).

The cables used in this mode acquire built-in protection and integrated shock protection against AC and DC currents.

Mode 3:

This preferred means of charging mode involves plugging into a home-mounted wall box or a charging station for an AC charge.

Mode 4:

This mode of charging technology is regarded as a DC-fast charge and is reserved for high-speed charging at charging stations.

Challenges and advancements in battery technology:

Besides a lot of advantages, there do exist a few challenges. One of them is the increased demand for electricity from batteries, along with the rise in EV adoption and the utilization rate of charging.

In order to compensate for this challenge, solar energy, and wind power generation act as potential keystones. Electricity could be produced by utilizing these renewable energy resources.

Harnessing the energy:

Making use of solar energy is an efficient way to power your electric car. Install a solar-power EV charging port at your place.

And, an attempt to exploit wind energy is made through the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). Despite the motion of the vehicle, one can charge the battery by placing the VAWT inside the front grille of the vehicle which produces the power by propelling the turbine.


As discussed in the above section regarding the production of electricity via renewable energy resources. Alike Electric Vehicles, Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles also produce zero emissions and are greener alternatives to those powered by fossil fuels by generating electricity on board with the combination of the hydrogen in their fuel tank with oxygen.

But, the conversion of electricity in hydrogen fuel cell cars is twice and is not efficient compared to electric vehicles which generate electricity straight away from the grid.

Therefore, according to the survey, EVs are more sustainable compared to other potential rivals as lithium-ion batteries could be reused and last longer with less self-discharge rate and high energy density.

Electric Motor:

A motor refers to the machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. It works using a physical process.

The function of Battery vs. Motor:

The battery in an electric car functions using direct current. Whereas the main motor of the electric vehicles provides traction to the vehicle by transforming DC energy into AC by an inverter.

How do Electric vehicles work?

Did you ever think about the functions of EV?

As mentioned, EVs do not require IC engines to operate. Instead, they run by a motor that is energized by a controller. The controller regulates the amount of power based on the driver's usage when the vehicle is accelerated. They are more like automated cars that have forward and reverse modes. And, this generally happens when the vehicle is placed in gear and pressed on the accelerator paddle.


The power in EVs is converted from a DC battery to the AC for the electric motor. The accelerator paddle sends a signal to the controller that adjusts the vehicle speed by changing the frequency of the AC power from the inverter to the motor. When the car decelerates, the motor becomes an alternator and produces power that is sent back to the battery.


Along with the differences, such as the battery, motor instead of gas tank, and engine, EVs work with no tailpipe contrasting to regular vehicles.

Are you aware of the tailpipe?

A tailpipe is merely an outlet used by engines to expel the exhausted gases from the vehicles.

Do EVs have a tailpipe?

No, they don’t. It's because EV runs on electricity and emits no exhaustion, unlike other vehicles run by the internal combustion engine.

And that is one of the main reasons for EVs being environmentally friendly and leaving less or no carbon footprints on our planet.

Learning to a great extent:

To experience full-scale learning of electric vehicle technology and to explore the EV components and their function, EdifyPath has launched India’s first-ever sensational “Immersive Electric Vehicles program”.

This specially designed program incorporates both online and offline sessions to cover all the concepts from the basics to an advanced level.

So, what are you waiting for?

Get your skates on to learn relevant skills and build a dream career in this game-changing industry.

To explore more about the EV program, go through the below-mentioned link:

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